German Shepherd: care and typical diseases
The content of the article
- Breed origin
- Breed Standard
- Health typical disease
- How to choose a puppy
- Features of care
- Pros and cons of the breed
German Shepherd – one of the most popular breeds in the world – characterized by loyalty and devotion, courage and endurance, high intelligence and ability to make decisions at the crucial moment. It adapts well to stressful situations, and when the owner of danger, stand on his defense, even at the cost of his own life.
If you decide to get a dog and, among many other species settled on “German”, you can rest assured – your pet will become your trusted friend who will never betray. However, before purchasing a puppy it is useful to become familiar with the training, dressage and other nuances.
German Shepherd, is considered a national symbol of Germany, one of the most famous and ancient rocks. It is believed that its ancestors were northern wolves. As a separate breed “Germans” appeared in the late XIX century and have earned a reputation of excellent guards and livestock-detecting dogs.
Enormous contribution to the removal of rocks made captain Emile Max von Stephanitz, who later became the founder of the Club of German Shepherd lovers. It began the painstaking selection work with herding dogs of the southern and central regions of Germany, the result will be the average type. It was the dog Greif, the first listed in the pedigree breed.
He was distinguished by fast response, better than any other team performed and showed good results for grazing. However, due to dirty coat color dog does not fit the definition of a national symbol.
The official date of the appearance of the first true German Shepherd is considered the second in April 1889. Male pattern Horand Grafat possess impressive size similar to wolf, and aesthetic appearance, and also high quality characteristics. In the same year, dog, who became the winner of the exhibition in Germany, was recognized as the progenitor of the breed. In the future, as a result of cross-breeding were born several lines of German shepherds, fully meets the breed qualities.
The Second World War is almost negated all the work of breeders and breed threatened with degeneration. Fortunately, the followers of von Stephanitz did not allow this. Today, German Shepherds are very popular and is one of the most intelligent breeds.
The breed standard
In cultivation breed “German Shepherd” are standards developed by Emil von Stephanitz. Briefly describe the “Germans”, this strong dog of medium height with strong and well-developed muscular system.
The weight of the adult male range from 35 to 40 kilograms, the height (in the shoulder) – 60-66 centimeters. Bitches Miniature: weight – 25-32 kg, rarely up to 60 cm at the withers.
Description of the standard:
- The head is wedge-shaped, bulging forehead without grooves. Her lips are dark, dry and tight. Bridge of nose straight.
- Jaws well developed, powerful, with a bite “scissors”.
- Ears of medium size, straight, upright, with sharp tips, the distance between. Lobe black color.
- Eyes almond shaped, slightly slanted, small. Iris dark.
- The sternum is pronounced, long, moderately broad. Specific requirements for thighs: they should not be thickened or barrel-shaped.
- The neck is strong, strong, muscular, without skin and fat hanging.
- Back: well developed, strong croup different length, it proceeds smoothly in the base of the tail.
- The front legs are straight, parallel to each other.
- Paws tightly assembled, round shape, with hard pads and dark nails.
- The tail is long, ending at the level of the hock and the lower part is covered with hair. When moving the tail slightly lifted, in a quiet position, gently hanging slightly bent.
Skin seal tightly to the body, do not form folds. Wool has an undercoat and is of three kinds:
- long, soft;
- long rigid;
- short tight.
Color can vary from pure black to a weakened and darkened sable.
The reason for disqualification is the deformation of the ears and tail, white coat color, bright eyes, broken or hanging ears, excessive nervousness, cowardice or aggression.
Health, common diseases
In general, German Shepherds are of good health and stamina. The most vulnerable in rocks considered eyesight and musculoskeletal system. The “Germans”, as well as many representatives of large breeds often diagnosed hip dysplasia (less often – the elbow), and this disease affects even young individuals.
The disease is manifested in the fact that the femur poorly adapted to the joint capsule, which causes difficulty in walking and standing up, severe pain. Simple, timely conduct of the operation will protect shepherd from a lot of suffering in old age, as the age the problem is compounded.
As for eye diseases, among the common pathologies of the visual apparatus – clouding and lens luxation, corneal dystrophy, keratitis. Loss of appendages of the eye is often diagnosed as oncology and remove a healthy organ of sight. Also you may encounter demyelination – damage to the myelin sheath surrounding nerve fiber.
German Shepherds have an innate tendency to the following diseases:
- pathology of the intervertebral discs;
- cardiovascular disorders (mostly males);
- diseases of pancreas;
- violation of fungal etiology;
Among the frequently diagnosed skin diseases – dermatitis, seborrhea, pyoderma, furuncle, pemphigus erythematosus, dermatitis.
Epilepsy, bone inflammation, allergies, cancer for the “Germans” are not typical.
Sometimes the owners of German Shepherds begin to experience difficulties in training, such as the dog struggles to overcome obstacles, to go down and up the stairs. This suggests that the animal has perianal fistulas with the accession of a secondary infection. Unfortunately, this pathology can not be cured and the best way to rid your pet from suffering is euthanasia.
Puppies may suffer from allergic pathologies, which in the absence of treatment causing severe dermatitis, growth hormone deficiency.
It should be noted that the Shepherd with black color is much more likely to develop distemper. The disease is not treatable and fatal.
With regard to life expectancy, on average, “the Germans” live 12-14 years. In identifying the disease at an early stage, the full treatment, good care, regular walks and a quality balanced nutrition German Shepherds can endure up to 17 years.
German Shepherds are smart, confident, fearless and know the limits of their territory. Any aggression directed toward the owner or other family members, they will be regarded as a signal to attack the offender. The people she loves, the dog will defend to the last drop of blood. However, being well-developed physically, he has all chances to defeat attackers.
Adults differ calm and balanced character and be trained much faster than other working breeds. It is no coincidence they are actively used in the army and police.
At an early age the dog may show disobedience and try to dominate, but can be easily suppressed with proper taming techniques and moderate physical impact of these qualities. Dog owner recognizes the authority and will fully comply with it.
German Shepherds get on well with children and tolerate childish pranks stoically. However, the abuse of animals is not worth the patience. Children need to be told that the dog – a family member, and you need to treat it with care.
How to choose a puppy
German Shepherds – a classic example of devotion, so taking in the house is already an adult dog, which had a different owner, it is not necessary to count on its loyalty. Reliable friend you can only get in if you educate a puppy from an early age.
Acquire the baby should be in the nursery, where breeders will give him all the necessary documents. On examination, the puppy, make sure that it:
- eyes no tears;
- strong, smooth limbs;
- large paws;
- skin has no redness;
- fur is smooth, with a pleasant smell;
- edges do not protrude;
- ears erect (after three months);
- correct bite;
- dark eye color (for babies up to 2 months, they are blue, but then darken);
- back straight.
The kid must be strong and at the age of 1 month to weigh, depending on the gender and the number of pups per litter, 2,5-4 kg. Watching the way he runs, you can determine the condition of the joints: when normal puppy strongly repelled hind limbs and throws away the front.
Pick up the baby from the mother can only be the age of 3-4 months. Let him longer fed breast milk, because it will not be able to replace any food. In addition, to determine the physical and psychological qualities can be no earlier than 3 months.
As for the cost of a German Shepherd puppy, it all depends on what goals the owner. For the protection of housing enough kid from simple parent – 100-300 dollars. breed-class girl is more expensive – $ 400-1000, puppies from parents champions – from $ 1000.
The definite advantage of German Shepherds – easy to clean. They are among the hardy breeds. For example, bathe the pet should be only 2-3 times a year, as frequent water procedures violate the protective layers of the dermis and can cause dandruff. Sufficiently cleaned after walking legs, clearing them from dust and dirt.
Combing wool need 1 time per week, during molting – more often. To do this, it is advisable to buy a special brush in a veterinary pharmacy. On paws wool confused, so it is better to shear. Ears purified using the wet swab teeth – bone with fluorine.
“Germans” – very energetic dogs, so it’s best to keep them in a private home, where they can move freely. If Shepherd is living in an apartment, you need to walk with her at least two hours.
Pros and cons of the breed
German Shepherd – a good choice, but because of its activity it is not suitable for everyone.
To breed advantages include:
- trainability and intelligence;
- simple maintenance;
- good protective qualities;
- absence of anger and aggression.
Have rock and cons:
- excessive mobility;
- the need for physical and mental stress;
- professional taming;
- preferably, the content in their homes, and not in the apartments.
When choosing a puppy, you should consider both advantages and disadvantages of the breed, to continue to have no problems with raising dogs and content.