Disease of the spleen in dogs
The content of the article
- 1 Functions and principles of body work
- 2 Types of tumors formed in the spleen
- 3 Reasons spleen tumors
- 4 symptoms and clinical course
- 5 Diagnosis of spleen cancer
- 6 Treatment of Tumor Spleen
Due to the active development of decorative and service dog, the dog population growth in urban areas non-communicable animal diseases have become a serious problem.
It is for this reason scientists today recognize that abdominal diseases pose a serious threat to the health of pets (before crucial veterinarian attention was focused on the treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system in dogs).
Moreover, even when time begun treatment is very difficult to predict how long the dog will live, and whether it will survive at all. Therefore, if the dog has greatly increased the spleen is very important as soon as possible to get her to a veterinary clinic.
Functions and principles of body work
Spleen is a single body, a relatively large, located in the left upper abdomen (stomach is in the back). Visually reminiscent of iron and large tongue. Spleen consists of two parts – white and red pulp (pulp), each of which performs certain tasks. Red pulp (about 80%) is responsible for blood filtration utilizes a protein and iron.
White pulp (20% of total volume) recognizes pathogens neutralizes their protects immunity against subsequent infections, replenishes inventory immune cells and lymphocytes.
In general, to the problems of the spleen include participation in the exchange of iron and protein, immune, filtration and hematopoietic function.
Thus, without being a vital organ, the spleen nevertheless has a number of features aimed at the normal life of the organism as a whole and the immune system in particular.
Types of tumors that formed in the spleen
Splenomegaly can be triggered by various factors: infectious diseases and inflammatory diseases, congestive caused liver pathologies, cardiovascular failure, hematomas.
The changes are temporary and after appropriate treatment parameters return to normal. Much worse, if the increase in help neoplasia, splenomegaly and other tumors of the spleen in dogs.
Tumors can be of two types – benign and malignant. The most dangerous and aggressive malignancy is hemangiosarcoma, which violates the clotting of blood, provokes bleeding and metastasizes.
Often diagnosed splenomegaly, which is a uniform enlargement of the spleen, does not apply to cancer.
In some cases, diagnosed cancer of the lymphoid tissues and blood cells, which can spread to the spleen. We are talking about such malignancies like lymphoma, lymphosarcoma, and leukemia.
Causes of spleen tumors
The exact causes that contribute to the phenomenon of enlarged spleen in dogs is not currently installed.
Benign tumors are most often the result of intense activity of the spleen, or insufficient blood supply to the organ. Risk of non-malignant tumors that over time, they can go into cancer.
This may be due to rapid cell division and mutations. However, this does not always happen very often degeneration hyperplasia occurs. It all depends on the external and genetic factors.
Malignant tumors can be caused by genetic abnormalities caused by exposure to body radiation, chemicals, hormones. organ cells exposed mutations impede normal dying process and regeneration cells.
This is due to the activation of cancer genes, tumor suppressor genes inactivity and changes in genes involved in apoptosis (controlled process of programmed cell death).
With regard to blood cancers and lymphatic tissues, they cause a variety of viral infections.
If we talk about the incidence of tumors in dogs that they are quite common. It is believed that some rocks, mostly short-haired (pit bull terriers, Labradors, Boxers, etc) have a predisposition to develop tumors.
It is noteworthy that German Shepherds are often diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma, at the Bernese – malignant histiocytosis.
Of great importance is the age, it concerns both sexes. In old animals (after 5 years) tumors develop more often than younger dogs. However, there are cases where tumors were diagnosed even in puppies aged 4-5 months.
Symptoms and clinical course
At home, to determine enlargement of the spleen in dogs is easy. It exerts pressure on the other organs of the abdominal cavity, so stomach increases in size, it becomes inflated.
The characteristic features may also include:
- nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite (due to pressure on the stomach);
- temperature increase;
- appearance of small points of blood on the skin and gums (petechial hemorrhage);
- weakness, loss of activity;
- renal failure (in severe cases).
If the reason for the increase was a malignant neoplasm of the spleen, there is a symmetrical increase in lymph nodes. At higher calcium levels and gamma-globulin, that is characteristic of cancer, dog constantly thirsty therefore becomes frequent urination.
Rapidly growing tumor can cause splenic rupture, acute collapse, severe bleeding in the abdomen, breathing problems that poses a direct threat to the life of the dog.
Beat cancer, symptoms and treatment of which are interrelated, it is possible only after the quality diagnostics.
Diagnosis of spleen cancer
Diagnosis of cancer is preceded by certain diagnostic measures. Visual inspection of the animal and the clinical picture, of course, is not enough.
The problem is that neither the US nor the X-ray does not allow a 100-percent accuracy to differentiate cancer from benign tumors (hyperplasia). A blood test may also prove to be not very informative, so as anemia detected in blood samples, nonspecific. Cancer cells in them can be found only in certain types of tumors.
Since the spleen cancer in dogs has various clinical manifestations, and the spleen is in close relationship with other organs of the abdominal cavity, it is for this reason, diagnosis should be carried out in the complex and includes clinical, haematological and sonographic studies angiokontrastnuyu radiography and Doppler effect.
For identification of tumor will require its sample, which is obtained during the subsequent diagnostic operation and microscopic examination specially prepared and stained tissue sections – histopathology.
This procedure makes it possible to obtain information about tumors, that help to predict the further development of the cancer. Such studies method as cytology, which is a study of cell samples for neinformativen spleen tumors.
Neoplasms of the lymphoid tissues may degenerate into cancerous tumors, so their diagnosis is extremely difficult.
splenic tumor treatment
Faced with the problem of enlarged spleen in a dog, especially when it comes to cancers, the owner should be aware that the treatment is complex and long-term, will require a lot of strength and endurance.
In malignant and benign treatment is performed surgically, implying organ removal. The operation is called a “splenectomy.” When hyperplasia tumor only affects the spleen, cancer – goes beyond it and metastasizes. But the operation does not guarantee full recovery, it only slows the progress of tumor development.
Chemotherapy is one of the most effective ways to induce remission, thereby extending the life of the dog in the development of cancer in her blood, fat cells, the lymph system.
But the poisons and toxins that are part of the drugs used in chemotherapy, at the same time have a chilling effect on other organs, to a greater extent on the liver. May develop kidney failure in dogs, symptoms and treatments are described here . Unfortunately, when splenic tumors in dogs currently optimal regimen of chemotherapy has not been developed.
Cancer treatment can take place with the help of steroids, which are anti-inflammatory drugs on the basis of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands. However, this therapy provides only short-term effect (a few months) and may provoke resistance to other cancer drugs used in chemotherapy.
At a certain stage of cancer treatment can stop the growth, but not disappear. To prevent tissue death and subsequent intoxication, the spleen must be removed.
In the postoperative period is necessary to ensure that the dog is licking its seams – it contributes to their differences and of infection. Place the cut should be clean and dry. If the discrepancy could not be avoided, there was a swelling or bleeding, should immediately report it to the vet.
After surgery, the physician issues histopathological conclusion which gives a preliminary prediction of further tumor development.
The final recovery from cancer can not tell any doctor. Proper and timely treatment conducted guarantee the cessation of tumor growth and the absence of metastases, but no more. Under unfavorable factors we can expect a new surge of the disease. Prognosis depends largely on the type of neoplasm.
Dogs with the 1st and 2nd degree benign tumors after splenectomy reside at least 12 months. While at the 3rd degree of cancer even if the removal of the affected organ survives and subsequent chemotherapy, only 5% of the dogs.
What happens in the body of the dog after the removal of the spleen? Most likely a boost in liver glycogen, a process that promotes accumulation of fat cells in this organ.